Archive for February, 2010

Scylla, scourge of the deep!!!

Wednesday, February 24th, 2010


The Legendary Scylla

I first heard of Scylla in my senior year of high school, and if it wasn’t my first time hearing it, it was certainly my most recognizable memory of Scylla. Being a part of our theatre production of Mary Zimmerman’s: The Odyssey, I was one of the sailors who survived the attack of Scylla! More than a year later, I’m now sitting in front of my laptop writing about her after being reminded of her existence in my search for sea monsters. Scylla (sometimes spelled Skylla) is a six-headed monster who would devour sailors on passing ships, one sailor for each mouth. Scylla was said to be “a beautiful nymph” who was then turned into a monster by the sorceress Circe. Visual depictions of Scylla vary, some portray her to be a complete monster while others have made her upper half of the body to be nymph while the lower half are the six heads of canines and the tail of a sea creature. This vicious monster was said to be found between Greece and Sicily; there are two rocks called Scylla and Charybdis named after the two monsters. Charybdis is often associated with Scylla since their proximity to each other was perilous no matter which route sailors chose. Charybdis was a whirlpool strong enough to take down entire ships; in The Odyssey, Odysseus chooses to sail to Scylla so that only six lives instead of everyone’s would be lost. There do not seem to be any records indicating the size of Scylla, however based off of readings she would most likely have been a gargantuan beast in size to be able to swim in likely turbulent waters from Charybdis, and to be able to scale tall cliffs and come down to devour sailors. If she was a complete monster with beastly head on long necks, then the size of a building may just be a good estimate. However if Scylla was half-nymph and half canine-monster with a serpentine tail, then another estimate in size may be that she was the size of a house.

Though she’s best known for eating sailors, Scylla, with her three rows of teeth per head, could also eat dolphins, sharks, or any creature that was at least of those sizes. Due to Scylla’s purely mythical existence, there have not been any eye witness sightings of her. Scylla’s behavior is fairly simple based off of readings, dwell in the cave and cliff side where she resides, and eat prey whether they are sailors or marine life.

Scylla’s past, just like her visual interpretations, vary. Her parents are probably the most diverse. Homer had her born of Krataiis who could have been a rock or river. Others have her the daughter of a shark, Lamia. One story says that a sea god Glaucus fell in love with Scylla, while she was a nymph. Glaucus decided to seek the help of the sorceress Circe for a love potion. However Circe was jealous of Scylla and according to some stories fell in love with Glaucus as he was describing his love for Scylla. From here, Circe decided to create a special concoction with herbs and put them into the pool which Scylla bathed in. When Scylla went into the pool she transformed into a monster with a serpent tail and the lower half of the body suddenly having six raging dog-heads. Another account of the story contains no love interests, but simply jealousy on Circe’s part (Circe usually is responsible in some of the stories of Scylla’s origin). Scylla has appeared in The Odyssey and in the tale of Heracles, the latter killing her. In the story of Jason and the Argonauts, the goddess, Hera, has the sea goddess Thetis gets Jason and his crew safely past Scylla and Charybdis. A couple stories with Poseidon and Scylla exist, both dealing with Poseidon being in love with Scylla. One story has Poseidon’s wife, Amphitrite, turn Scylla into a monster due to jealousy. Scylla today is the name of a rock in the waters between Italy and Sicily, and one tale as to how she became a rock is due to the sea god Poseidon. Poseidon had fallen in love with Scylla, and after sleeping with her turned her into the rock. Scylla’s origin’s and history vary, but what does not vary is her reputation. Scylla was the ferocious monster who along with Charybdis made a deadly passage for all sailors.


Name: Scylla (Latin Spelling), (alt: Skylla (transliteration), Greek name (Skulla), Translation: tear, Rend (skullo^)

Location: Mythological Greece/ Ancient Greece.

Traditionally the strait has been associated with the Strait of Messina between Italy and Sicily, but more recently this theory has been challenged, and the alternative location of Cape Scilla in northwest Greece has been suggested by Tim Severin.[2]

Food: Humans (tend to be sailors), dolphins, sharks or anything similar to the previous two in size.


1 Line – 3 Economies

Wednesday, February 24th, 2010
26.5 N passes through Florida, the Bahamas, and Central Africa, all with very different economies...

Economy in Florida

  • The Gulf Stream exerted a tremendous influence on the colonization of North America
  • Most all colonization from Virginia to the south chose the southern route across the Atlantic even though it was 2,000-3,000 miles farther due to the Gulf Stream
  • Benjamin Franklin worked with his cousin Timothy Folger and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the Gulf Stream and his Gulf Stream chart got published in 1770
  • Miami is one of the country's most important financial centers
  • It is a major center of commerce, finances, corporate headquarters, and boasts a strong international business community
  • Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers
  • Miami is partitioned into many different sections, roughly into North, South, West and Downtown
  • The heart of the city is Downtown Miami and is technically on the eastern side of the city. This area includes Brickell, Virginia Key, Watson Island, and the Port of Miami
  • Downtown is South Florida's central business district, and Florida's largest and most influential central business district. Downtown also has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. along Brickell Avenue
  • Downtown is home to many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. East of Downtown, across Biscayne Bay is South Beach


Economy in the Bahamas

  • The Bahamas is an established, secure nation but also a developing one
  • Their economy, as with many Caribbean islands, is heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone accounts for more than 60% of this country’s GDP and directly or indirectly employs half of the Bahamian labor force
  • More recently, there has been a steady growth in tourism due to the recent boom in the construction of new hotels, resorts, and residences
  • The U.S. contributes 80% of the Bahamas’ visitors
  • Offshore banking is also a large contributor to the country’s GDP
  • The Bahamas is attractive and popular in offshore banking terms purely because there is no tax
  • The Bahamian Commercial Fishing Industry is also important both socially and economically to the Bahamas
  • Bahamians depend on marine resources for food, recreation and employment
  • Many Bahamians are employed in this area either directly as fishers or in the sale and distribution of fish products. In fact, there are 9,000 individuals employed in the fish production sector, and 95% of them are fishermen
  • The Bahamas has large shallow banks in its Exclusive Economic Zone with an assortment of diverse habitats that sustain marine life
  • Most of the commercial fishing takes place on the shallow banks of the Bahamas. There are two main banks: the Little Bahama Bank is located to the north and the larger Great Bahama Bank in the west central and southern Bahamas. These banks provide about 45,000 square miles of relatively productive shallow fishing grounds
  • The deep water fishing industry is not well developed in The Bahamas as it is more costly and demanding. This would require specialized equipment and technology. However, interest is ever-increasing as fishermen attempt to diversify their catch
  • The three main important fisheries in the Bahamas are crawfish, queen conch, and scalefish.

queen conch

Economy in Africa

  • It is about the same size as Colorado
  • Has 1,110km of coastline
  • The ocean is an important resource
  • The coastal waters are rich in fish and other edibles from the sea
  • The maritime laws are still messy because of the sovereignty issue with Morocco
  • Population: 405,210
  • The economy is based around fishing and phosphorous mining due to the lack of rain
  • The government is not established due to political turmoil in the country
  • The main import is fuel to power the fishing boats
  • Morocco annexed the top 2/3 of Western Sahara in 1976 and then claimed the rest of the territory in 1979
  • A guerrilla war broke out in 1991 that ended the cease fire
  • In 2007 through 2009 the UN negotiated with Morocco to ease the tension of the civilians of Western Sahara, but Morocco still has sovereignty over them
  • Tensions are still high in Western Sahara


Katie, Chris, and Frank

3 Photos Plus Captions

Wednesday, February 24th, 2010

Hey Everyone!!

Here are three photos that Nick E. and I think would work well in the compliation of photos that we as a class are putting together for the slide show.

Image of 27 just before she begins her journey of retreival.
Image of 27 just before she begins her journey of retreival.

Not only was 27 the first transatlantic glider, she was also a high tech sampling unit. She has provided us with some great data about the constituents of the water while on her journey. Though her main function was to take samples of the water, it is funny how the water took some samples on her. The various biology that encircles her ranges from fishes to muscles, to other things as well. It is funny how some pretty cool biology attached and hovered around 27.

Scott Glenn, Oscar Schofield, and Joshua Kohut standing behind 27.

Scott Glenn, Oscar Schofield, and Joshua Kohut standing behind 27.

These 3 men were the masterminds. 27 was life to the 3 men on the right, and they bent over backwards for 27. They dealt with all of the stress that came with 27, they were the distinguished men who had the final say pertaining to each and every final descision that was made concerning 27, and they rejoiced when 27 had sucessfully made the transatlantic voyage. Ultimately, these 3 men were those who invested their lives into 27. Look what they have received in return for their investment.

Track of The Scarlet Knight, the first underwater glider to cross the Atlantic. Scarlet was launched from Tuckerton, New Jersey, USA on April 27, 2009 and recovered offshore Baiona, Spain on December 4, 2009. Time at sea was 221 days. Distance traveled was 7,400 kilometers.

Track of The Scarlet Knight, the first underwater glider to cross the Atlantic. Scarlet was launched from Tuckerton, New Jersey, USA on April 27, 2009 and recovered offshore Baiona, Spain on December 4, 2009. Time at sea was 221 days. Distance traveled was 7,400 kilometers.


Hope you like the photos.


Equator: Economy and Society

Wednesday, February 24th, 2010

The equator intersects the South American coast on Mexiana Island, a private island located in the mouth of the Amazon River. It is one of the oldest fishing sites in Pará, with an area of 247,105.38 acres. The island is home to many species of fish, and draws in many fresh water sports fishermen from around the world, who want to catch the pirarucu fish that can grow to nearly 3 meters long. The force of the Amazon Riverkeeps the water surrounding the island mainly fresh.

Two cities are close to the equator in the Atlantic; one in South America, and one in Africa.

In South America, Belém, which means Bethlehem, is a city on the banks of the Amazon estuary, in the northern part of Brazil. It is the entrance gate to the Amazon, and has a busy port, airport and bus station. Belém is about 100 km upriver from the Atlantic Ocean on the Pará river, which is part of the greater Amazon River system, separated from the larger part of the Amazon delta by Marajo Island.

Belém was founded in 1616 as the first European colony on the Amazon, and became part of Brazil in 1775. The metropolitan area has nearly 2.1 million inhabitants. It has a tropical rainforest climate and is known as the city of mango trees. It recently witnessed a skyscraper boom. The most valuable exports from Belém are aluminum, iron, other metals, nuts, pineapples, cassava, jute, and hardwoods.


In Africa, Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, with a population of 578,000. It was founded in 1848. It is a port on the Komo river near the Gulf of Guinea and is a trade center for timber. It has a shipbuilding industry, brewing industry, and sawmills. It exports raw materials such as wood, rubber, and cocoa from the city’s main port.


Money On The River

Wednesday, February 24th, 2010

To understand how important the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are we need to do a comparison between those two and another river that is heavily commercialized. Let's compare it to the Mississippi River. It is common knowledge that the Mississippi River is one of the major arteries for commerce in America. According to World Port Source the Port of New Orleans has 8 billion dollars worth of revenue pass its port annually and over 500 million tons of cargo. In comparison World Port Source says the Port of Belem at the mouth of the Amazon handles just over a million tons of cargo which is mostly comprised of wood, wheat, chestnuts, pepper, and metallic silicon. There is no net worth in revenues for the port. There is unfortunately no port data for the Orinoco River.

Ever since World War II, the economic development of the Amazon has been a priority for Columbia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Many penetrating roads from areas of high population to the Oriente (a region of barely explored tropical rain forest in eastern Ecuador. These roads are used to carry minerals and hard wood from the low population areas to the cities. Some of the minerals found near the Amazon are iron, gold, copper, nickel, manganese, and tin. Tropical fish are also a source of revenue for the people of the Amazon.


The Orinoco is much less developed than the Amazon. The economy is relatively weak there because it is so under developed. It is rich in mineral deposits similarly to the Amazon. Some of these minerals include iron, manganese, nickel, vanadium (a metallic element useful for forming alloy's), chrome, gold, and diamonds. Petroleum and natural gas are also exploited in this area. The Orinoco and its tributaries long have served as vast waterways for the indigenous inhabitants of the Venezuelan surrounding area; making transportation an important economic need not only the indigenous people but for cargo ships. Many of Venezuela's leading seaports which include La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, and Maracaibo rely on the interior waterways of the Orinoco River to maneuver ships. During flood and rainy seasons boats with outboard motors are the only means of communication throughout large areas of the river basin. Dredging has allowed large oceangoing vessels to navigate the Orinoco from its mouth to its confluence with the Caroní River in order to tap the iron ore deposits of the Guiana Highlands. River steamers carry cargo as far as Puerto Ayacucho and the Atures Rapids. Transportation also supports the fishery that occurs in the Orinoco. Orinoco fishery is multi-specific, with around 80 different species found in the fish markets at different times of year.


Similarly the Amazon is the most notable inland waterway. It is navigable by ship from the Atlantic Ocean to Iquitos in Peru, leading to important seaports which include Callao, Salaverry, Pacasmayo, Paita, and San Juan in which cargo ships travel to. River transportation is also used for fishery, in which many of the indigenous people depend on for food and their survival.

Until next week,

Abe, Jay, and Mario

The Human Effect on the ACC

Wednesday, February 24th, 2010

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is part of the waters richest in marine life. It is home of the Brittle Star City, which is an underwater summit with millions of brittle star starfish. The circumpolar current is an ideal place for the brittle stars to reside because they are able to take advantage of the current that brings in food as it passes by at approximately four kilometers per hour.


The Southern boundary of the ACC, which is where the Prince Edward Islands are located, is known for being a good food resource, but it is not fixed since it shifts north and south about 6 to 12 miles due to the Westerly Winds. Recently, there has been a noticable decline in the number of penguin colonies who go to feed in the Antarctic. The cause for this is believed to be because of the climate changing and south shifting waters. Changes in the Antarctic ice cycles are causing there to be winters in a row with nothing but ice, and then some without ice. Depending on how much ice there is, determines the amount of algae and krill for the penguins to return to feed off of, because if there is no ice then there is no algae for the krill to feed on.

A location of importance that affects the fishing zones near the Antarctic is the British Falkland Islands, which Argentina refers to as Las Islas Malvinas. These Islands are located in the South Atlantic Ocean, 300 miles from South America, 700 miles from Antarctica, and 3,800 miles from the south of Africa. Fishing zones have created tension between the British and Argentinians because rights to the surrounding waters of the islands will allow more authority and control in the Antarctic. The Antarctic is a region which has not yet been tapped into, but is believed to be rich in minerals which would be very profitable. Fishing accounts for sixty percent of the Falklander’s income, with the squids being the most heavily fished in the area. However, illegal capture of certain fish such as the Pantagonian fish results in arrest. Aside from being rich in squid, the islands are also thought to have many gas and oil reserves, which sparks great interest to Argentina and Britain as well as cause even more tension among the two nations. At the moment, exploration of these reserves is limited in the islands and the surrounding areas to prevent any extreme environmental impact.


Antarctica is the only continent to not have some form of government and is considered to be politically neutral. The Antarctic Treaty was set in 1959 and signed by 12 different countries agreeing to make Antarctica and its surrounding waters a scientific preserve. This means that it is free of scientific investigation as well as military activity. However, there still had been some attempt to allow mining and exploration since there were minerals such as coal, hydrocarbons, iron ore, platinum, and others found in the Antarctic and its surroundings, but in 1998 that was completely ceased and the continent is now considered a natural reserve and is devoted to peace and science.

-Dave, Jess, Karan

South Atlantic Gyre- Economy and Society

Tuesday, February 23rd, 2010
This image shows the locations of the of the 3 islands in the South Atlantic Ocean

This image shows the locations of the of the 3 islands in the South Atlantic Ocean

The main economic activity on the island is centered on the military bases at Wideawake Airfield, and the BBC World Service's Atlantic Relay station. The Ministry of Defense estate and facilities are managed by the infrastructure support provider Interserve Defense. Serco manages the airport services with Sodexo providing catering and domestic facilities. A former feature of Ascension was a 70,000 ton tanker permanently moored offshore that was operated by Maersk as a bulk fuel facility. In December 2002, this was replaced by an on-shore Petroleum Supply Depot under military management.
Tourism and related industries:
The main export item is Ascension Island postage stamps, first issued in 1922. Typically five to six sets of stamps are issued each year.
Until recently, tourism was non-existent because of the inaccessibility of the island to transport, the absence of guest accommodation and the restrictive permissions required for entry. Limited air travel has, however, been made available in recent years to the public by the RAF, and the Georgetown Obsidian Hotel together with a number of guest cottages that have been opened. All visitors are required to obtain an entry permit before travelling. Sport fishing is the main attraction for many of the visitors. The Island also boasts what was once officially the worst golf course in the world. Located between the settlements of Two Boats village and Georgetown, the course has 18 holes and the greens are in fact 'browns', a reference to the sand and oil mix used to make them. The rest of the course is made up of volcanic ash and rock, which makes for some interesting rounds. The current Ascension Island Open Champion is Alex Turner, who in fact has been the 'Open' Champion three times in the last four years (2003 - 2007).
The island hosts many communications and relay stations, exploiting the Island's strategic position in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Both the BBC and Cable and Wireless have communications posts there. The European Space Agency (ESA) also has a tracking station on the island that tracks the Ariane 5 Space rockets shortly after they take off from French Guyana.
Banking and currency:
The Bank of St. Helena has a branch on the Island. This bank holds an account with Lloyds TSB in the United Kingdom for the purposes of conducting money transfers with the rest of the world. [16]. The currency on Ascension Island is the Saint Helena pound. Saint Helena has two dependencies, Tristan da Cunha and Ascension Island, but Tristan da Cunha uses the pound sterling, not the Saint Helena pound, which is only the official currency on Saint Helena and Ascension Island. The coins of the Saint Helena pound actually specify that they are for use on both Saint Helena and Ascension Island, but with no mention of Tristan da Cunha. For more information on currency in the wider region, see the Sterling Currency in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic.

The economy of Saint Helena depends largely on financial assistance from the UK, which amounted to about $5 million in 1998. Saint Helena's local population earns income from fishing, the raising of livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, a large proportion of the work force has left to seek employment overseas.
A campaign is currently underway (reported on BBC Radio 4, Today programme, 10 July 2004) to encourage emigration from the UK to Saint Helena to aid development of the economy. UK government announced intention in early 2005 to fund building of international airport on the island by 2010.
Saint Helena's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity for the 1994/5 financial year was US$13.9 million, and this figure, per capita, was $2,000. The financial year in Saint Helena runs from 1 April to 31 March. St. Helena's budget had revenues of $11.2 million, with expenditures of $11 million in the financial year ending 1993
Saint Helena possesses construction, craft (including furniture and lacework) and fishing industries.As of 1991, Saint Helena has a workforce of 2,416. A large proportion of the work force has, however, left to seek employment overseas. Of the workforce, 6% are employed in farming and fishing, 48% in industry (mainly construction) and the remaining 46% are employed in service industry. In 1996, the rate of unemployment was 18%.
The main agricultural products of Saint Helena are: maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber; fish, crawfish (on Tristan da Cunha)
In 1995, exports were at a value of $704,000, with commodities exported including: fish (frozen, canned, and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), coffee, handicrafts and Tungi Spirit. Export partners were South Africa and the United Kingdom.
$14.434 million of imports were made in 1995, imported commodities including: food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts. Saint Helena's import partners, like its export partners, are South Africa and the UK.
Economic aid:
Saint Helena received $12.6 million in aid in 1995, and in 1997, $5.3 million from the United Kingdom.
The local currency is the Saint Helenian Pound, which is equivalent to 100 pence, and is at a par with the British Pound.
Banking services on St. Helena (and Ascension Island) are provided by the Bank of St. Helena, which delivers a full retail banking service to individuals and business in, and trading with, St. Helena.

All Tristan families are farmers, owning their own stock. All land is communally owned. Livestock numbers are strictly controlled to conserve pasture and to prevent better-off families accumulating wealth. No outsiders are allowed to buy land or settle on Tristan.
The islands' main source of foreign income is the lobster factory and the sale of postage stamps and coins to overseas collectors. Most people have dual occupations, often working for the local government. Many inhabitants have plots of land (at the patches) on which they grow potatoes.
The 1961 volcanic eruption destroyed the Tristan da Cunha canned crayfish factory, which was rebuilt a short time later. The crayfish farmers work for the South African company Ovenstone, which has an exclusive contract to sell crayfish to the United States and Japan. Even though Tristan da Cunha is a UK overseas territory, it is not permitted direct access to European Union markets. Recently the decline in interest in Tristan crayfish in the United States has meant that the islanders have had to borrow from their reserves. The islands' financial problems may cause delays in updating communication equipment and improving education on the island.
The fire of February 13, 2008, (see history above) has resulted in major economic disruption.
Banking and currency:
Although Tristan da Cunha is part of the same overseas territory as Saint Helena, it does not use the local Saint Helena pound. Instead, the island uses the United Kingdom issue of the pound sterling. For more information on currency in the wider region, see The Sterling Currency in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic. The Bank of Saint Helena was established on Saint Helena and Ascension Island in 2004. Although this bank does not have a physical presence on Tristan da Cunha, the residents of Tristan are entitled to use its services.

This image shows the 3 islands in the South Atlantic

This image shows the 3 islands in the South Atlantic

-Kyle, Amelia, Emily

Antarctic Peninsula: Economy & Society

Tuesday, February 23rd, 2010

There are no cities or states in the Antarctic. The only places where people live are bases or stations, usually operated by national governments. Seven countries, including Argentina, Australia, Britain, Chile, France, New Zealand, and Norway, claim territory in Antarctica, but all of these countries have agreed to put their claims to one side and cooperate with other countries in studying and conserving Antarctica for the benefit of the world.

The picture above shows Palmer's Station; an American base in Antarctica

The picture above shows Palmer's Station; an American base in Antarctica

The Antarctic Treaty was signed on December 1, 1959 by twelve countries and entered into force on June 23, 1961. To date, forty-seven countries have signed the treaty; 28 consultative (decision-making) and 19 non-consultative; consultative members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 21 non-claimant nations; the US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims and the US does not recognize the claims of others.

The Antarctic Peninsula forms part of disputed and overlapping claims by Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom. None of these claims have international recognition and the respective countries do not currently actively pursue enforcement.

Antarctic Territorial Claims

Antarctic Territorial Claims

Economy - Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account for Antarctica's limited economic activity.

Society - There are no indigenous inhabitants on Antarctica, but there are both permanent and summer-only staffed research stations.

Although this very remote part of the world has never been inhabited and is protected by the Antarctic Treaty System, which bans industrial development, waste disposal and nuclear testing there is still a threat to these fragile ecosystems from increasing tourism, primarily on cruises across the Southern Ocean from the port of Ushuaia, Argentina.

Three Currents to Glide Upon

Wednesday, February 17th, 2010

Team Equator

Magellan departed on August 10, 1519 from Spain and crossed the equator on November 20, 1519 in the Atlantic Ocean. After entering the Pacific, Magellan reached the equator again on February 13, 1521. The last remaining ship of Magellan’s original fleet made it back to Spain on September 6, 1522.

In the Atlantic Ocean, there is a North and a South equatorial current, as well as an equatorial undercurrent.

The NEC found in the North Atlantic from about 7°N to about 20°N. It is a broad westward flowing current that forms the southern section of the North Atlantic subtropical. The current originates from the northwestern coast of Africa. Its peak velocity is 15 cm s-1 during July and August, with a weakening to 10-12 cm s-1 during spring and fall. The annual mean transport is 8.5 Sv with the lowest transports occurring in late winter and in spring.

north equatorial current

The South Equatorial Current (SEC) is a broad, westward flowing current that extends from the surface to a nominal depth of 100 m. Its northern boundary is usually near 4°N, while the southern boundary is usually found between 15-25°S.

south equatorial current

The Equatorial Under-Current (EUC) is a strong subsurface current that flows eastward at the equator in the Atlantic, located between 2°N and 2°S. The EUC is clearly visible with a core at about 100 m depth, which moves downward in boreal summer-fall and upward in boreal winter-spring, following the vertical migration of thermocline. The velocity at the core reaches 90 cm s-1. The transport is generally 22 – 28 Sv.

The DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) system is a component of an enhanced tsunami warning system. The United States array was completed in 2008 totaling 39 stations in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. The international community has also taken an interest in DART buoys and as of 2009 Australia, Chile, Indonesia and Thailand have deployed DART buoys to use as part each countries tsunami warning system. The partner Indonesia station is located on the equator in the Indian Ocean. The station has a watch circle radius of 4016 yards. The satellite images on the website are updated every 1 or 2 minutes. They do not have any buoys along the equator in the Atlantic.


The Africa Partnership Station is an international initiative developed by United States Naval Forces Europe-Africa, which aims to work cooperatively with U.S. and international partners to improve maritime safety and security in Africa. APS activities consist of joint exercises, port visits, hands-on practical courses, professional training and community outreach with the coastal nations of Africa. Their goal is to improve the ability of the nations involved to extend the rule of law out to sea and better combat illegal fishing, human smuggling, drug trafficking, oil theft and piracy in the Gulf of Guinea region. The U.S. navy says it is illegal to send the gliders to the surrounding area because there is a large risk of having them stolen by other countries.

Antartic Peninsula- The Science

Tuesday, February 16th, 2010

-The Antarctic Peninsula can be considered a mountainous continuation of the Andes with peaks 2500-3000 m and ice caps to an elevation of 2000m. Packed ice is present throughout the year and vegetation of mosses, lichens and green algae are richest on islands off the west coast. The Larsen Ice Shelf can be found on the eastern margin and the smaller Wordie and Bach Ice Shelves are on the western margins. From January to February 2002, the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf, an area of 1,250 square miles (3,250 km2), disintegrated in a period of 35 days. This was the largest collapse event of the last 30 years, bringing the total loss of ice extent from seven ice shelves to 6,760 square miles (17,500 km2) since 1974. The ice retreat is attributed to the regions strong warming trend - 4.5*F (2.5*C) in the last 50 years.

The image shows a researcher by a large crack in the Larsen B Iceshelf

The image shows a researcher by a large crack in the Larsen B Iceshelf

-Scientists have long established that the Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming spots on Earth. Now, new research using detailed satellite data indicates that the changing climate is affecting not just the penguins at the apex of the food chain, but simultaneously the microscopic life that is the base of the ecosystem.

- In the north, where ice-dependent species are disappearing, sea ice cover has declined and wind stress has increased. The wind intensity and reduced sea ice causes greater mixing of the surface ocean waters. The result--a deepening of the surface mixed layer that lowers primary productivity rates and causes changes in phytoplankton species, because phytoplankton cells are exposed to less light. Levels of phytoplankton off the western Antarctic Peninsula have decreased 12 percent over the past 30 years.

Above is a typical food web from the Antarctic Peninsula Ecosystem

Above is a typical food web from the Antarctic Peninsula Ecosystem

- Conversely, in the southern Peninsula waters, where ice-dependent species continue to thrive, the situation is reversed. There, sea ice loss has been in areas where it formerly covered most of the ocean surface for most of the year. Now, ice is less prevalent, exposing more water to sunlight and stimulating phytoplankton growth. Since 1945, the Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a warming of about 4.5*F (2.5*C). The annual melt season has increased by 2 to 3 weeks in just the past 20 years.

-Alyssa, Tiffany, & Shannon